There is no story arc more powerful than the hero’s journey. Each of us believes we are on this journey, destined to overcome obstacles, defeat the villain and return home with the gold. This is an aspirational story. But research shows that fear of loss is much more persuasive to humans than the opportunity to gain something. In other words, it is the villain who has the more persuasive story than the hero. Brian Massey discusses how marketers can use negative messages and threats of loss persuasively, and how to draw the line between persuading and manipulating.